HIV Treatments

hiv

Here, the clinics have comprehensive clinical programs for diagnosis, management, and research involving patients in all disease stages of HIV. Patients have the latest HIV therapies as well as therapies for the prevention and treatment of the secondary infectious and malignant complications that result from immune suppression caused by HIV. You can benefit from the latest diagnostic tools and therapeutic interventions.

There are approximately 30 drugs approved to treat people living with HIV/AIDS, and more are under development. They are divided into 5 different HIV drugs classes, each of them attacking the virus at different stages of development.

Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART or ART) consists of taking 3 kinds of drugs from different classes at the same time to prevent the virus from duplicating and replicating. The 3-drug regimen helps to control the amount of virus in the body and protects your immune system.

The HIV drugs include:

Entry or Fusion inhibitors prevent the HIV virus from entering healthy CD4 cells (T-cells).

Enfuvirtide, T-20 (Fuzeon)

Chemokine Coreceptor Antagonists (CCR5)

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs or nukes) block the HIV replication cycle by slowing down the production of the reverse transcriptase enzyme.

Examples:

Zidovudine (e.g., Retrovir);

Didanosine (e.g., Videx EC);

Stavudine (e.g., Zerit);

Lamivudine (e.g., 3TC, Lamivudine RBX, Zefix, Zetlam);

Abacavir (e.g., Ziagen);

Emtricitabine (e.g., Emtriva); and

Tenofovir (e.g.,Viread).

Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs or non-nukes) also block the duplication of HIV, but they work slightly different from nukes to bind the cell’s reverse transcriptase.

Examples:

Nevirapine (e.g., Viramune XR);

Rilpivirine (e.g., Edurant);

Efavirenz (e.g., Stocrin); and

Etravirine (e.g., Intelence).

Protease Inhibitors (PI) are used to block the enzyme called protease, so the HIV virus can’t be released from the cell to infect other cells.

Examples:

Saquinavir (e.g., Invirase);

Indinavir (e.g., Crixivan);

Ritonavir (e.g., Norvir);

Amprenavir (e.g., Agenerase);

Fosamprenavir (e.g., Telzir);

Lopinavir (e.g., Kaletra);

Atazanavir (e.g., Reyataz);

Tipranavir (e.g., Aptivus); and

Darunavir (e.g., Prezista).

Integrase Inhibitors work by blocking an enzyme (HIV integrase) the virus uses to integrate copies of itself into human DNA.

Examples:

Raltegravir (e.g., Isentress);

Dolutegravir (e.g., Tivicay);

Elvitegravir (e.g., Vitekta).

A recent clinical trial has found it is crucial to begin antiretrovirals (ARVs) soon after HIV diagnosis to reduce the risk of sickness and death when compared with waiting to start treatment until CD4 levels drop substantially. The sooner you start the treatment, the more chances you have for a healthier and longer life.